Atmega8 PWM control(frequency,polarity,duty cycle) tutorial with example program

If You come there from internet search i assume You already know what is PWM and where it can be used, so in this post I’ll only explain how to use 8 bit timer in Atmega8 to generate PWM signal and control frequency, polarity and duty cycle.

PWM can be generated from 16-bit Timer/Counter1 or 8-bit Timer/Counter2 but this time I’ll only explain 8-bit Timer/Counter2 Fast PWM Mode.

In this picture from Atmega8 documentation Fast PWM mode is explained.  Counter(8bit) counts from 0×00 to 0xFF and restarts from 0×00. In not inverting mode OC2 is cleared when counter match value in OCR2 register and set at 0×00. In inverting mode OC2 is set when counter match value in OCR2 register and cleared at 0×00.

From this all turns out that PWM duty cycle depends on OCR2 register. In not inverting mode duty cycle = OCR2/256*100% and it’s  50% if OCR2 is 0×80(middle between 0×00 – 0xFF).

In every PWM period counter must count 256 steps, so frequency of signal is 256 times lower than counter clock from prescaler. PWM frequency = Atmega clock frequency/timer prescaler(1,8,32,64,128,256)/256. With 4 MHz crystal maximum(without prescaler) PWM frequency is 15 625Hz.

Register setup

For example 15 625 Hz, 50 % duty cycle, non-inverting mode PWM signal generation.

1. OCR2=0×80(128); As mentioned before duty cycle = OCR2/256*100%

2. TCCR2=0×69;

3. DDRB=0×08; PWM signal is outputted by toggling  level of PORTB pin 3.

DDRB sets it as output.

All together:

#include <iom8.h>
int main( void )

while (1) {};


~10% duty cycle, 61 Hz.

#include <iom8.h>
int main( void )
OCR2=0x1A; // 256/10=25,6 26 in hex = 1A;
TCCR2=0x6E; // 256 prescaler

while (1) {};


And there is demo program and *.hex file for PWM demo seen in video.

  Atmega8 PWM demo program (1.8 KiB, 3,611 hits)

  • Lmcgill2

    What type of scope is that? Just curious…

  • Gauarvgupta

    how to generate the pwm of 40 hz signal…….?

  • Pingback: Atmega328 Development Kit |

  • Gurubaran M

    Thanks for your attitude to teach others

  • Pingback: Control frequency and duty cycle by AVR ??

  • riki yanto

    How about wanting to 50Hz inverter using OC2 pinb.3

  • David

    thanks for this explanations about the mikrocontroller

    I just used the sourcecodeexample of

    and it worked. but thanks to your explanations i underrstand, why it works ;-)

  • Adriano

    What is the model of your oscilloscope? And how to enter the writing in the movie? Thanks

  • sathish

    In atmega8 ,how to detect the different dutycyles of pulses?.. and also want to glow a each LED for each duty cycles?…

    Here i wrote a program in atmega8 for generating DC pulses with different dutycycles. Now i want to write a program for detecting it ie If 10% dutycyle is received then LED 1 will be glown, if 15% dutycycle is received then LED 2 will be glown, etc…

    Could you people help me??..

  • sathishkumar

    Hai friends..

    I hope you people only help to me in this simplest project.!!!

    I wrote a program for generating 10%, 20%, 30%… dutycycles of pulses in atmelstudio6 for atmega8 MC. Now i wanna to detect that pulses and need to glow the LED respective to that dutycycles.

    For example, i took one input pin and 6 output pin. when 10% of duty cycle is received at input pin, Led1 will be glow which is connected in (PD0) first output pin. If i give a 20% dutycycle pulses as a input then LED 2 will be glow (PD1), etc… Like wise the 6 Led want to be glow with respect to different dutycycles of pulses..

    I wanna thid program… Please help me